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Ouled Djellal, Algeria


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Good Morning

iAppreciate your thread ifind it very well about cultural ijust would to talk about my cultural borne contry in Algeria Ouled djellel the old city and beautyful productions dattes in the south ifind it excited to give some thread and memory how people was living withe old civilisation since 1910 iam pleased to share some pics from it below

Ilook forward to hearing from you soon
Best Wish
Lahcene



Find out more about Cultural Connection Week and view other people’s posts about their cultures here.

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Good Morning
This presentation was made on June 15, 2013, at Pierre Bénite (Lyon) by our friend Ahmed BOUJEMLINE, in the presence of the local councilors who were receiving a delegation of their Algerian counterparts from Ouled-Djellal, with a view to twinning from both cities. It should be noted that the group that presented the city was made up of other elements including Mr. FOUIL Athmane who contributed greatly to make this meeting rewarding in more than one way, by intervening in the areas that are theirs.

1-History



Ouled-Djellal was born from a Berber oasis (according to the senatus-consulte) next to the limes (a kind of border wall Roman) which gave rise, later, to a city bearing the name, it seems , from one of its first inhabitants "Jellel". The word means harnessing, ornament (decoration) saddles of horses, craft that exercised it.

This man had a reputation for being hospitable and generous, especially to visitors in search of knowledge.

2-Culture and Society



One can say that this city was one of the cradles of the Arab-Muslim culture, by its Zaouias (Echorfa, Lemàamra, Mokhtaria, etc ...) and Koranic schools annexed to the mosques. It is necessary to quote Zaouiet El hamel (Kassimia) very related to Ouled-Djellal, which was the continuation of El Mokhtaria and which educated a whole generation. This respectable institution has been served successively, from father to son, by the noble Kassimi family, represented among us today, in the person of the Consul General of Algèrie, who has honored us with his presence. May he be warmly thanked.

The first Algerian Doctorate in Philosophy, at the Sorbonne, is obtained by Mr. KORIBAA Nabhani, in 1967.



- A gold medal at the Olympic Games in Amsterdam, in the marathon, is obtained by El Ouafi Bouguera (or Chikh), in 1928. This exceptional athlete was from a disadvantaged background. He did not benefit from any sporting context that prepared him for this level. Living in O.Djellal at the time when his divorced mother lived in Lioua (30km away), he visited her often, but making the round trip on foot and running. That's how he became a marathoner


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Thank you for sharing about your home in Algeria, @Bahamas2020! I've moved your two posts to a new topic so people can find them more easily!
@Bahamas2020 : Those dates sure look delicious! Do you make many recipes with dates or do you mostly eat them by themselves? Can you just pick them off a tree and eat them? Thanks.
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Dear Judith:

welcome iAppreciate much your thread that what iwould to share you something you love iam sure

ihope you will enjoy withe it because at this time ate dattes withe milk

ilook forward to hearing from you soon

Best wish
Lahcene

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Dear Judith:

welcome iAppreciate much your thread that what iwould to share you something you love iam sure

ihope you will enjoy withe it because at this time i ate dattes withe milk

ilook forward to hearing from you soon

Best wish
Lahcene

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Dear All :

ihave abig pleasure to share this cultural even from Algeria iam pleased all here will know about Algeria and where it find north Africa beautyful place you find below pics
ilook for ward to hearing from you soon
Good Luck
Lahcene

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Hi All,
iam so happy to share you a wonderful story about etien dinet below

Painter and writer, Alphonse-Etienne Dinet was born in Paris in 1861 in a bourgeois environment. His stint at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris was successful. He obtained in 1884 the medal of the Salon des Arts plastic Palace Industry, which grants him a scholarship for Algeria, a country he had already visited in 1883. He remained there this time five years. On his return to Paris in 1889, he presented at the Universal Exhibition a series of paintings made in Bou-Saâda, which earned him a silver medal. Subjugated by the magnificence of southern Algeria, he undertakes in 1905 another trip, and will settle in Bou-Saada, to live there permanently. With the help of his friend Slimane Ben Brahim Baâmar, he traveled the desert and became familiar with the nomadic and Bedouin tribes, discovering the Arab-Berber tradition. This will push him to love then to convert to Islam in 1913 by becoming Nasreddine Dinet.

He produced a quantity of studies, scenes, sketches, portraits of a flamboyant light. He regularly participated in exhibitions dedicated to Orientalism.

After a pilgrimage to Mecca that he completed on April 2, 1929, he died December 24, the same year in Paris and will be buried on January 12, 1930 in Bou-Saada.

The painting workshop of Nasreddine Dinet, located at the edge of Oued Bou-saada was unfortunately washed away by a flood of wadi occurred during the seventies. A large part of the gardens above the "Ferrero Mill" was also ravaged by this same flood

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Hi All,
iam so happy to share you some pics from my contry north Algeria Kabily very nice place withe agreat story below

ihope you will enjoy
Best Wish
Lahcene
Who are the Berbers? Where do they come from ? What is their story ? So many questions about a people, a culture, too little known and yet so close, intimately linked to the history of France, Europe and the Mediterranean.

Some precisions...
The name given to the Berbers is Imazighen (pronounced Imazirrene) plural of Amazigh (pronounced Amazir). Which means "free man"; it is also the symbolic name of the letter z (z of the tifinagh alphabet of the Imazighen), a cultural claim symbol. Berber comes from Latin barbarus and Greek barbaros: one who is not Greek. Kabyles are the Berbers of Kabylie (in Arabic Bilad al Qa'ba'il: country of the tribes), in the north of Algeria.

Geography
Tamazgha (Land of Free Men) is the region where the Imazighen live. Formerly very vast, from the Atlantic to Egypt and from the Mediterranean to the limit of Black Africa. Still important in the 21st century, the Tamazight language, the oldest known language in North Africa, is spoken in a dozen countries as far as sub-Saharan Africa.

About 45% of the population of Morocco is Berber, 30% in Algeria, 21% in Libya, 1% in Tunisia. In Egypt, Berber is spoken only in the oasis of Siwa, near the Libyan border. The Tuaregs, about 400,000 nomads, currently occupy northern Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Burkina Faso.

Berber immigration in France, especially Kabyle, has about 3,500,000 individuals, making the Berber the most widely spoken territorial language in the Hexagon after French.

Currently, the world's Berber-speaking population is about 26 million people, as much as all the inhabitants of Belgium and the Netherlands. Without taking into account the North African Berbers who believe they are Arab: Indeed, the number of descendants of families from Arabia is low in North Africa: despite the strong presence of this language, most of the population of Maghreb is Berber and ignores it.

Prehistory
The settlement of the Maghreb is very old and is confused with the evolution of the human species: many are the prehistoric remains found in North Africa. The ancestors of the Berbers were on

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Hi All;

iam very happy to share you some story of Algeria below

In the Desert novel of Le Clézio, the "nature" of the Blue Man opposes the
"Culture" of the White Man, but the stakes are purely political, economic,
colonialist. Because in reality, this opposition, this contrast "nature / culture" is
itself a cultural object, and this is not a contradiction if we affirm with
Morin that "man is by nature a cultural being" (Morin, 1973: 101). We
in this article, we would like to demonstrate how Le Clézio's text illustrates the desire
conquest of the French and their "cultural", "civilizing" project, which responds to the
need to colonize territories overseas and to monopolize their wealth.
This colonial project under cultural cover opposes the nature of the Blue Men
which is represented by the desert, because "The desert gives silence, freedom and
independence, "writes Roland Ducrocq (2009: 13). And "Without freedom, the Tuaregs

Abstract In the novel Désert of Le Clézio, the “nature” of the Blue Man is opposed to the “culture” of the White Man, but the challenge is purely political, economic, colonialist. Because in reality, this opposition, this contrast “nature / culture” is itself a cultural object, and this is not a contradiction if we say with Morin that “man is by nature a cultural being” (Morin, 1973 : 101). We would like in this article to show how the text of Clézio illustrates the desire of conquest of the French and their “cultural” project, “civilizing”, which meets the need to colonize territories overseas and to monopolize their wealths. This colonial project under cultural cover is opposed to the nature of the Blue Men which is represented by the desert, because “the desert gives silence, freedom and independence”, writing Roland Ducrocq (2009: 13). And “Without freedom, the Tuaregs do not exist” known as an old proverb which translates with more close the spirit of the Blue Men. Keywords: nature, culture, desert, Touaregs, colonialism Dans le texte de Le Clézio, la quête de l’armée française, comme celle du héros mythique, devient civilisatrice : défricher le désert pour fonder une nouvelle communauté correspond au passage de la « nature » à la « culture », projet qui, on le sait, ne se fait pas sans violence. Dans le roman Désert, l’opposant ou l’ennemi qu’il faut « victimiser » pour fonder le nouveau pays est le peuple Touareg. Il est, en effet, nécessaire de détruire la « sauvagerie » de celui-ci et de s'approprier son territoire. L'emploi de nombreuses métaphores militaires illustre parfaitement la terrible guerre que doivent livrer le général Moinier, le colonel Mangin et leurs armées aux Hommes Bleus du Sahara : - « Le convoi avançait lentement sur la plaine brûlée, dans la direction de la vallée du fleuve Tadla. » (p.373), lieu du massacre, - « … deux mille fantassins armés de fusils Lebel. » (Idem.) ; - « Au loin, le croiseur Cosmao était immobile sur la mer couleur de métal, et ses canons se sont tournés lentement vers la vallée où fuyaient les gens du désert » (p. 433) ; - « au moment où ils (les cavaliers maures) traverseront le lit du fleuve, le tir croisé des mitrailleuses les balaiera, et il n’y aura plus qu’à donner le coup de grâce, à la baïonnette. » (p. 435). L’armée française s’estime, en effet investie d’une « mission civilisatrice » à l’égard des populations dites « naturelles », « primitives » et « inférieures » pour reprendre les termes de Ruscio (1995 : 11-12), qu’il fallait « éveiller à la

civilisation », en élevant leur niveau de vie et en leur apportant l’instruction et la santé. En réalité, des raisons d’ordre économique viennent en premier lieu, des mobiles stratégiques sont aussi avancés. Enfin, des arguments politiques et idéologiques sont également évoqués. Le texte de Le Clézio illustre bien le désir de conquête des Français et leur projet « culturel » qui répond au besoin de coloniser des territoires outre-mer et de s’accaparer leurs richesses. La « nature » de l’Homme Bleu vs la « culture » de l’Homme Blanc La « nature » de l’Homme Bleu La « nature » a seulement doté l’Homme Bleu d’outils, pour qu’il puisse lui-même assurer sa survie et évoluer. Ensuite, cette même « nature » lui a offert le strict minimum pour qu’il puisse s’élever d’une situation très primaire à l’état le plus élevé. Grâce à cela, il ne serait redevable qu’à lui-même et obtiendrait donc l’estime de soi. La nature se présente comme une réalité caractérisée par la permanence, la stabilité, la régularité. « Dès la première minute de leur vie, les hommes appartenaient à l’étendue sans limites, au sable, aux chardons, aux serpents, aux rats, au vent surtout, car c’était leur véritable famille. » (p. 25). Le retour des saisons et des floraisons, la constance des formes du vivant, mais aussi du monde matériel, font de la nature pour ainsi dire le gage de la substantialité de l’être : que les choses aient une nature signifient qu’elles possèdent une sorte de solidité sur laquelle l’être humain peut faire fond dans ses actions et ses entreprises. La nature recèle une sorte de vérité qu’il s’agirait de découvrir. « Les femmes mettaient les enfants au monde, simplement accroupies dans l’ombre de la tente, soutenues par deux femmes, … Les petites filles aux cheveux cuivrés grandissaient, apprenaient les gestes sans fin de la vie… Les garçons apprenaient à marcher, à parler, à chasser et à combattre, simplement pour apprendre à mourir sur le sable. » (p. 25). Grâce à cela, ils ne seront redevables qu’à eux-mêmes et obtiendront donc l’estime de soi. Cette expression du monde naturel est définie par Greimas et Courtés comme suit : « Par rapport à la structure « profonde » de l’univers, qui est d’ordre physique, chimique, biologique, etc., le monde naturel correspond, pour ainsi dire à sa structure « de surface » ; c’est, d’autre part, une structure « discursive » car il se présente dans le cadre d’une relation sujet / objet, il est l’énoncé construit

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Hi All ,

the story no finish again see below

The natural world is thus presented as a phenomenological datum.
In Desert de Le Clézio, this same data is illustrated throughout the story:
the Blue Man is part of nature and has nothing.
The Blue Man is part of nature
"They were born of the desert ..." (p.8), "They were men and women
sand, wind, light, night. "(9). Le Clezio depicts them
as themselves become an element of the desert, as impregnated by him:
"They had become, for so long, dumb as the desert, full of
light when the sun burns in the center of the empty sky, and frozen from the night to
frozen stars ".
These men have become silent as the desert is, and their bodies
follow the rhythms of the sun and moon, of heat and cold, so marked in
these regions. Even their skin has changed color: "Sweat was flowing slowly
on the faces of travelers, and their dark skin had taken on the reflection of indigo, on
their cheeks, on their arms, along their legs "; in this sentence, the rhythm
Final ternary evokes bodies completely covered with sweat and tinged with indigo,
as if to emphasize the total influence of the environment on men.
These are the bodies that best show this profound transformation: they
seem worked, worn, possessed by the desert and its constraints, as the
highlight the following notations: "His face was dark, blackened by the sun,"
"Fatigue and thirst enveloped them like gangue" (p.8), "Drought
hardened their lips and their tongue. Hunger was gnawing at them "(Idem).
Nour's skin, a girl, too, changes color. The image of the
gangue makes blue men precious stones preserved by the desert under
a rough appearance; but they are also the victims of the desert, "gnawed" as
an animal that would feast on them. More than a change of appearance, it is
almost a change of nature to which the desert subjects them; they seem so
to become beasts or metal: "The blue tattoos on the foreheads of women shone
like beetles. Black eyes, like drops of metal, were watching
barely the stretch of sand ... "(Idem).
The beetle is the animal that symbolizes the sun among the Egyptians
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Under the gangue, we find the light, that of the desert. We notice the importance of the lexical field of light and brilliance: "They had become,
for so long, [...] full of light [...] "," the light of his look "," They
were the men and women of sand, wind, light ... "(p.9)," They
especially had the light of their eyes, which shone so clearly in the sclera of their eyes "(p.10). Born from the desert itself: "They were born of the desert"
(p.8) they are so good that they have almost no existence of their own:
"The wind was passing over them, through them, as if there was nobody on them
dunes "(Idem).
Silence reigns supreme over these first pages of the novel: no character
speak, no dialogue is reported, neither direct style nor indirect style. On the one
On the one hand, the very conditions of life in the desert explain this silence: aridity
is such that the mouth of the Tuareg is chapped, and "the thirst that bleeds the
lips, the hard silence where the sun shines "prevent them from speaking to each other. The wind carries
words, rendering them vain: "the wind carried away noises and odors".
Relationships between beings are thus of an instinctive nature: in fact, men
are evoked in their march on the same level as the animals: "Men and the
flock fled slowly, ... "(D, 10)," ... men and animals ceased
walk. (D, 10). "As the flock of men and animals approached,
the black silhouettes of men multiplied. "(D, 16). "A man was guiding
the dromedaries, only with the voice, grunting and spitting like them. "
(D, 10). Beyond these constraints born of the desert, the characters are, as we have
seen, "born of the desert" (D, 8): in the image of the natural environment with which they are
they can do without words: "They could not have spoken. They had become,
for so long, dumb as the desert "(Idem).
It is therefore a form of verbal disability, replaced by other forms of
communication, that they are condemned. The silence of the desert lives all
passage, where no notation of noise is to be noted: it is even rather the recurrence of the lexical field of the absence of noise which is striking: "without noise", "They
walked noiselessly in the sand "... For the men of the desert are without desires,
almost without need, living a primitive life form, in contact wit

I gave the name of this huge Algerian artist as a name for my son and the evocation of this artist is worth considering what was Mohamed Racim.



Mohamed Racim (born June 24, 1896 in the Kasbah of Algiers, died March 30, 1975), is an Algerian painter, calligrapher, miniaturist, founder of the Algerian School of miniature. He studied his art at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Algiers and then at the Academy's Drawing Cabinet. He was a specialist in Arabic calligraphy, illuminated and miniaturist; he worked on Etienne Dinet's book, The Life of Muhammad.

His works will be exhibited in Algiers, Paris, the Galliera Museum, Cairo, Rome and Vienna.

A stamp has been published in his likeness.

Biography

Coming from a family of artists, he came to art very early. At the age of 14, he entered the Drawing Office of Professional Education in Algiers, where he would bring to the task an intelligence that would plead in his favor with his teachers, particularly his uncle Mohamed Bensaid, whose advice he would often solicit. The discovery of the Persian miniature mark, after the workshop of the Casbah and the drawing cabinet, a second step in the learning of Mohamed Racim. It was decisive when Nassereddine Dinet entrusted him, in 1916, the ornamentation of the book The life of Mohamed.

Having reached a certain notoriety, Racim undertakes his first journey in search of the history of illumination and miniature. He visited successively Paris, Cordoba and Granada where the art of miniature was flourishing. On his return, he executed various works, including the decoration of the text of the Thousand and One Nights by Joseph-Charles Mardrus. After a short and discreet visit to the Department of Manuscripts of the National Library of France, he still travels to London where he meets Sir Denison Ross (in), master of Iranian studies, then Cairo, Rome, Vienna, Bucharest and Stockholm where he exhibited the sum of his works, at the Musée Galieni, in Paris, where he mounted his first exhibition, he received an enthusiastic welcome from both the public and the press who greet the rising artist in him.

Back in Algeria in 1932, he received the Grand Prix Art. From 1934, he devoted himself to teaching at the École des Beaux-Arts in Algiers. During his lifetime, Algeria had the first place in the world of miniatural art. The celebrity of the master was such in this field that he nearly emigrated to India where his presence was claimed. It was because of his hard work and his intelligence that he removed the alterations due to the injurious contributions of the West, and caused the brilliant freshness of the original work to emerge from four and a half centuries of darkness.

His miniature returns with these descriptions to the Algerian society of yesteryear, images all in poetry, denoting an extreme sensitivity and a permanent concern to report faithfully scenes of social life, in meticulously studied settings, as the artisans had conceived. decorators of the time. Minutia, patience, poetry, sense of decor, hand safety, choice of nuances, are all factors that preside over the creations of Racim who had only made a run for oil painting.

He took part in the exhibition of "Algerian Painters" organized in 1963 in Algiers for the Festivities of November 1st "and prefaced by Jean Sénac1 and in 1964 to that which is presented in Paris at the Museum of Decorative Arts.

He died on March 30, 1975, murdered with his wife in their home in Algiers, in tragic circumstances and never elucidated.

The 22 fabulous paintings by Mohamed Râcim
by clicking on the image



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@Bahamas2020 This is very nice Lahcene Ouled Moussa! Thank you for posting so many pictures. I did not know that Berbers are actually called Imazighen which means "free men" or "noble men". I am glad to learn something new.
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Dear Danijla:

iam so happy to read you and thanks afor your patient withe my cultural even yes it means free man ihave more thing to post for this cultural activity withe coursera iam on going to post most from Algeria

ihope you enjoy much

Lahcene
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Hi All,

now ican share an other Algeria story ihope you will Appreciate it much bellow

Located in the northern part of the Algerian Sahara, the wilaya of Ghardaia which holds its culture and traditions of its rich history, remains the second largest tourist pole after the Algerian coast and represents one of the most visited regions of the country. It encompasses the Mzab Valley which is part of World Heritage. The wilaya has a delegated wilaya (El Menea), 9 daïras, and 13 communes.

Agricultural resources are mainly characterized by the production of fish. 590,000 quintals of dates, all varieties combined, are expected in the wilaya of Ghardaia, under the harvesting campaign of the 2017 agricultural season.

market gardening and cereals are widespread in the Wilaya. Livestock in the Wilaya of Ghardaia, which is not an agro-pastoral region, is quite extensive in sheepmeat, goat, camelina and cattle.

The sector of tourism and the craft industry is a strategic sector in view of the tourist and artisanal potentialities which conceals the region (historical sites, cultural, scenic sites, hydrotherapy, craft industry ...). In addition, the reputation of the native wilaya of Moufdi Zakaria is largely due to its architecture. Hydrotherapy also tends to develop at the level of this Wilaya thanks to the water and thermal resources concealed by it.

The GHARDAIA Wilaya has two industrial zones located in Guerrara and Bounoura and several business parks.

Like the wilayas of the South, Ghardaia benefits from various development programs. In addition, it is concerned with the administrative division, with the aim of instilling a new dynamic in local development and bringing the administration of the citizen closer.
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GHARDAIA - With its centuries of history and its architectural splendours, the region of Ghardaia contains an invaluable civilizational heritage placed at the highest level of the human heritage by UNESCO in 1982 as a universal heritage, and which today requires only to be preserved.
This tangible and intangible heritage of the ksour valley M'zab, which was to be at the heart of any action to promote investment and sustainable socio-economic development, does not fail to raise the paradox between a region classified by UNESCO and the low awareness of the impact of this ranking.

For several decades, the region of Ghardaïa, particularly the M'zab valley, has suffered the consequences of rapid and sometimes anarchic urbanization to the detriment of its architectural heritage, say many actors of the associative movement activating in the preservation of heritage.

The valley has experienced the effects of accelerated urbanization, anarchic and advanced degradation of its environment, including palm groves, where illegal constructions were built without respect for the architectural standards of the region, said a notable region.


Le paysage architectural de la vallée du M'zab, qui possède une grande richesse sur le plan de la typologie formelle et fonctionnelle et de la diversité du langage architectural utilisé dans les différentes oeuvres bâties, connait des bouleversements au niveau de ses structures urbaine, sociale et économique, a indiqué, de son côté, un jeune architecte de passage à Ghardaïa.
Ces bouleversements, accentués depuis quelques années, se manifestent par des constructions illicites et anarchiques, un squat du foncier et d'espace vert notamment les palmeraies, où le béton a fait son apparition en force, ajouté à la ruralisation de l'espace urbain de la vallée, a expliqué le même interlocuteur.
Selon les statistiques de la direction de l'Urbanisme, l'Architecture et la Construction (DUAC), le nombre de constructions illicites recensées dans la vallée du M'zab dépasse les 1.600 bâtisses, construites sans permis de construire, sans respect de l'architecture locale et sur des terrains squattés, défigurant le paysage et l'environnement dans la vallée.
Cette dernière est entrée ainsi dans un cycle de dégradation de son espace physique et de son style architectural où un processus de délaissement des matériaux de construction locaux et traditionnels au profit du ciment et du béton a défiguré les sites de la région.
"Notre patrimoine matériel légué par nos aïeux se dégrade de jour en jour à cause des vicissitudes du temps et des aléas climatiques ainsi que les effets de l'homme, autant de facteurs qui entachent le passé prestigieux de cette région'', a estimé Ahmed Nouh, notable de Béni-Isguen.





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Hi All ,

an other people in Algeria from Aures

Women at the source, beating wheat or modeling clay: the exhibition "Aurès, 1935" presents in Montpellier the striking portrait of a Berber society disappeared from the "rebel mountain" of eastern Algeria, prepared by two women exceptional, Germaine Tillion (1907-2008) and Thérèse Rivière (1901-1970), then young ethnologists.

The two researchers, of whom some 120 black and white photos are presented for the first time together at the Pavillon Populaire de Montpellier from February 7 to April 15, led from 1935 a long investigation in the rugged massif of Aurès, to the edge of the Sahara, for the museum of ethnography Trocadero, became in 1937 the Museum of Man.

Long forgotten and lost because of the tragic fate of its authors - the 1942 to 1945 deportation for the resistant Germaine Tillion and a psychiatric internment of more than two decades for Thérèse Rivière from 1948 to her death -, their joint work on some 60,000 Chaouia, Berber population who then kept an agropastoral economy organized around its collective granaries - the guelâa - is thus put in
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Hi All ,
the story of Aures okba iben Nafa and Axel


It was 14 centuries ago, Aksel, was radically opposed to the conquest of Arabs for Amazigh North Africa. He is described as the leader of the powerful tribe Aures of Aurès in Algeria.

Following the defeat at the Battle of Al Alit, at the sources of Tlemcen, Aksel converted to Islam (675). He managed to win the trust of the Muslim leader Abu Muhammad Dinar and even become one of his close associates.

In 681, Uqba Ibn Nafi'ê, this Arab Daechian conqueror of North Africa, recalled a few years earlier in the East, returned to North Africa. He would have taken revenge on his successor, Abu Dinar, and would have treated Aksel harshly. He would have had it covered with chains and dragged him like a living trophy throughout his ride through the Maghreb.

"Among the insulting traits he would have allowed himself to be, the following story is told: he had just received sheep and, wanting to slaughter one, he ordered Aksel to skin him"

Aksel angrily withdrew and slaughtered the sheep, wiping his bloody hand on his beard.
Some Arabs then came up and said, "What are you doing Amazigh? "
To which he replied: "This is good for hair"
But an old man from the Arabs passed and exclaimed: "This is not the reason, it is a threat that this Amazigh is throwing at you! "
Abu Muhadjir Dinar then addressed Uqba and said, "What are you doing! Here is a man of the most distinguished among his people, a man who was still a polytheist a short time ago and you take the task of creating resentment in his heart! I advise you now to make him tie his hands behind his back, otherwise you will be a victim of his perfidy. »» (According to Al-Nowaïri.)

Aksel would have managed, indeed, to flee and join his men. He would have abjured Islam and, in alliance with the Byzantines, he would have taken over, at the head of an important army, the war against the Arabs.

He would have surprised Uqba near Tehuda, not far from Biskra, and after a terrible battle he would have killed him and most of his men (683).

Following his march and his capture of Kairouan, the stronghold of the Daechians of the time, he would have Berberized his name in "Taqirwant" and made Kairouan his capital. He had himself crowned and reigned for three years, from 683 to 686, that is to say until his death, at the battle of Mems, near Kairouan. His authority would have been recognized according to the very opinion of some Arab authors; he would have treated his Amazigh and Arab subjects with justice and would have allowed them to freely practice their religion.

A few years later, the region ignites again, this time with a woman at the head of the resistance, "Dihya" the Kahina. According to Ibn Khaldoun, Dihya (Kahina) avenged Aksel's death by ordering to kill all the Arab Daechians of his kingdom.

Today, history is repeating itself, and only the Amazigh can eradicate "Daeshism" in North Africa.





The Kahena, whose real name is Dihya or Damya, is a Zen Berber warrior queen of the Aures who fought the Umayyads during the Islamic expansion in North Africa in the seventh century.

Fifteen years after the death of the Prophet, the Arab armies approached North Africa. To face the invader, the Kahena will organize the Berber resistance, realize the difficult unity of the Maghreb and inflict Arab riders with bitter defeats.

She possessed a prophetic gift and was venerated by her people. She was one of the first feminists and queens warriors of history. Westerners compare her to Joan of Arc and Ibn Khaldun attributed supernatural powers to her.

Etymology
For the Berbers of Aurès, her name was Dyhia Tadmut, which means the beautiful gazelle in Tamazight or Damya which means diviner.

The nickname Kahena has several meanings in Arabic, Hebrew or Greek. In Arabic, Kahena refers to a fortune-teller or witch, which can be pejorative. In Greek, Kahena is derived from Karina meaning to be pure. In Hebrew the word is close to Cohen who has a sense of priesthood.

History
The conquest of North Africa is decided by the head of the Umayyad dynasty, Muawiya I. At the dawn of the invasion, the political and administrative unity of Eastern and Central Berberia is led by Kusayla, leader of the resistance to the Muslim Conquest of the Maghreb and converted to Islam. This region is now called Les Aurès and stretches from eastern Algeria to western Tunisia. He enters into conflict with Oqba Ibn Nafi Al Fihri, General of the Umayyad army.

When Kusayla died in 686, the Kahena, from the Berber tribe Numid Djerawa, took the lead. She then appealed to many tribes in East and Southern North Africa to unleash the war against the Umayads.

It defeats twice the great army of the Umayyads thanks to the contribution of the riders of Banou Ifren.

It reigns throughout Ifriqiya for five years. Defeated in 693 by Hassan Ibn in N'uman in the last battle against the Umayyads, she takes refuge in the Amphitheater of El Jem. She is finally taken prisoner, then beheaded at Bir El Kahina. The Umayyad army chiefs send his head in trophy to the caliph Abd al-Malik in Syria.

She will be the only woman in history to fight the Umayyad empire. The Umayyads ask the Zenetes to provide twelve thousand fighters for the conquest of Andalusia as a condition for the cessation of the war.

Divergences on religion

According to the Berber historian Ibn Khaldoun, on the eve of the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, several Berber tribes practiced Judaism.

The question of the religion of Yemma al Kahina (our mother Kahina) 19 has been treated by several historians of the Middle Ages or contemporaries. Several hypotheses have been put forward, according to which she would have been monotheistic, animist or other.

According to historian Gabriel Camps, a specialist in the Maghreb, the zenetian tribes were not Jewish but very Christian. However, for Paul Sebag "it is to go against the texts, hardly recusables" that give the Kahena for Jewish, and member of a Judaised Berber tribe.

The traces of Kahena

In Tunisia, the only place that testifies to the existence of Kahena is the amphitheater of El Djem.

The ancient city of Baghaï, where is supposed to be the castle of Kahena:

A single statue was built in the Maghreb in memory of the Kahena: Raised by the association Aurès El-Kahina in downtown Baghaï, it was inaugurated by the Algerian president in February 2003. Some Kabyle protested because no language registration Amazigh is not on the pedestal of the statue, its name is written in Arabic.

Bibliography

. Ibn Khaldoun, History of Berbers (translated from Arabic by Baron de Slane), Volume I, Algiers, 1852-1856, p. 208.
. Émile Félix Gauthier, The Dark Sides of the Maghreb, Payot, Paris, 1927, p. 245.
. André Chouraqui, History of the Jews of North Africa PUF, Paris, 1952.
. Nabile Fares, Memory of the absent, Editions du Seuil, Paris, 1974.
. Tahar Djaout, The Invention of the Desert, Editions du Seuil, Paris, 1987, p. 31-33. (ISBN 2020095173)
. Gisèle Halimi, The Kahina (novel), Plon, Paris, 2006. (ISBN 978-2259203142)
. Yacine Kateb Because it's a woman: interview followed by three plays: Kahina or Dihya; Said Ennissa. Presentation - 2004. (ISBN 272100493X)
. Didier Nebot, The Kahena, Queen of Ifrikia (novel), Anne Carrière, Paris, 1998. (ISBN 2-910188-97-3)

The Kahina a resistant queen

The Arabs made their appearance in North Africa around the year 648 the conquest of this vast territory already under the Byzantine domination lasted more than half a century, it is under the leader of the Umayyad dynasty, Mouawiya 1st that the battles one after the other. Kouceila, AKSEL in Amazigh language a prince of Aurès organizes in the year 683 the first Berber resistance against the Arab invasion led by Okba Ibn Nafaa, the Muslim army eventually killed Aksel in the year 688.

According to El Waqidi, an Arab author, it was Kouceila's death that prompted Queen Kahina to wage war on the Arabs, but in reality she participated in several battles alongside Kouceila, notably the famous battle of TEHUDA in which he was killed. Oqba Ibn Nafaa in the year 683.

But many historians ask questions about this heroic and mysterious woman of the 7th and 8th century nicknamed the Kahina which means in Arabic the priestess or the seer according to the historians with the example of Ibn Khaldoun its real name would be DIHYA or DAMIA daughter of Matiya ben Tifan of the Djerawa tribe who is largely Judaised in the 7 th century, it is for this reason is often said by historians that the religion of Dyhia was Judaism. Others say that the religion of Kahina was Christian, in any case whether it is Jewish or Christian or even pagan, there is little choice for either in the absence of precise documents.

In Bérbérie women have always played a leading role at least until the Almohad period should be mentioned the wife of Youcef ibn Tachfin and the sister of Ibn Toumert but the greatness of the Kahina nobody can not equal because it fed on freedom and patriotism it unifies the Berber forces and was crushed the Arab army on the banks of the (Meskiana Ain Beida and Tebessa) the clash took place on the wadi NINI in memory of defeat the Arabs nicknamed the wadi of '' the river of misfortunes '' and repelled it in tripolitania.
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In 698 the general Arab Hassan ben Nouaman returns with reinforcements and seized Carthage it is the adopted Arab prisoner Khalid ibn el Yazid who will betray it later by warning Hassan of his positions in a message sent concealed in bread.

Before the defeat of the Kahina, the last battle was held in the region of Tarfa 50 km from TOBNA at the feet of Aurès an old town located west of Barika around Batna, this capital was the largest city of the old road from Kairouan to Sijilmassa. the Kahina was killed in the year 701 in front of a well that bears his name: Bir el Kahina, well of the Kahina, Hassan Ben Nouaman finally defeat the Imazighen, in this last battle and capture Dihya, he beheaded, then his head was sent as a war trophy to the Arab caliph Abd al-Malik in Syria.

Today in the Aurès region, the Chaouis call her Yemma El Kahina (Kahina mom) and several songs are dedicated to him, The most famous group bore his name in Aurès. In contemporary Algerian literature, Kahina is evoked in the works of Kateb Yacine as well as many other writers.

Queen Dihya is an integral part of the cultural, historical and even mythical Amazigh heritage. She is a symbol of freedom and resistance to the Arab-Muslim conquest
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Hi All ,
the story of Aures okba iben Nafa and Axel


It was 14 centuries ago, Aksel, was radically opposed to the conquest of Arabs for Amazigh North Africa. He is described as the leader of the powerful tribe Aures of Aurès in Algeria.

Following the defeat at the Battle of Al Alit, at the sources of Tlemcen, Aksel converted to Islam (675). He managed to win the trust of the Muslim leader Abu Muhammad Dinar and even become one of his close associates.

In 681, Uqba Ibn Nafi'ê, this Arab Daechian conqueror of North Africa, recalled a few years earlier in the East, returned to North Africa. He would have taken revenge on his successor, Abu Dinar, and would have treated Aksel harshly. He would have had it covered with chains and dragged him like a living trophy throughout his ride through the Maghreb.

"Among the insulting traits he would have allowed himself to be, the following story is told: he had just received sheep and, wanting to slaughter one, he ordered Aksel to skin him"

Aksel angrily withdrew and slaughtered the sheep, wiping his bloody hand on his beard.
Some Arabs then came up and said, "What are you doing Amazigh? "
To which he replied: "This is good for hair"
But an old man from the Arabs passed and exclaimed: "This is not the reason, it is a threat that this Amazigh is throwing at you! "
Abu Muhadjir Dinar then addressed Uqba and said, "What are you doing! Here is a man of the most distinguished among his people, a man who was still a polytheist a short time ago and you take the task of creating resentment in his heart! I advise you now to make him tie his hands behind his back, otherwise you will be a victim of his perfidy. »» (According to Al-Nowaïri.)

Aksel would have managed, indeed, to flee and join his men. He would have abjured Islam and, in alliance with the Byzantines, he would have taken over, at the head of an important army, the war against the Arabs.

He would have surprised Uqba near Tehuda, not far from Biskra, and after a terrible battle he would have killed him and most of his men (683).

Following his march and his capture of Kairouan, the stronghold of the Daechians of the time, he would have Berberized his name in "Taqirwant" and made Kairouan his capital. He had himself crowned and reigned for three years, from 683 to 686, that is to say until his death, at the battle of Mems, near Kairouan. His authority would have been recognized according to the very opinion of some Arab authors; he would have treated his Amazigh and Arab subjects with justice and would have allowed them to freely practice their religion.

A few years later, the region ignites again, this time with a woman at the head of the resistance, "Dihya" the Kahina. According to Ibn Khaldoun, Dihya (Kahina) avenged Aksel's death by ordering to kill all the Arab Daechians of his kingdom.

Today, history is repeating itself, and only the Amazigh can eradicate "Daeshism" in North Africa.





The Kahena, whose real name is Dihya or Damya, is a Zen Berber warrior queen of the Aures who fought the Umayyads during the Islamic expansion in North Africa in the seventh century.

Fifteen years after the death of the Prophet, the Arab armies approached North Africa. To face the invader, the Kahena will organize the Berber resistance, realize the difficult unity of the Maghreb and inflict Arab riders with bitter defeats.

She possessed a prophetic gift and was venerated by her people. She was one of the first feminists and queens warriors of history. Westerners compare her to Joan of Arc and Ibn Khaldun attributed supernatural powers to her.

Etymology
For the Berbers of Aurès, her name was Dyhia Tadmut, which means the beautiful gazelle in Tamazight or Damya which means diviner.

The nickname Kahena has several meanings in Arabic, Hebrew or Greek. In Arabic, Kahena refers to a fortune-teller or witch, which can be pejorative. In Greek, Kahena is derived from Karina meaning to be pure. In Hebrew the word is close to Cohen who has a sense of priesthood.

History
The conquest of North Africa is decided by the head of the Umayyad dynasty, Muawiya I. At the dawn of the invasion, the political and administrative unity of Eastern and Central Berberia is led by Kusayla, leader of the resistance to the Muslim Conquest of the Maghreb and converted to Islam. This region is now called Les Aurès and stretches from eastern Algeria to western Tunisia. He enters into conflict with Oqba Ibn Nafi Al Fihri, General of the Umayyad army.

When Kusayla died in 686, the Kahena, from the Berber tribe Numid Djerawa, took the lead. She then appealed to many tribes in East and Southern North Africa to unleash the war against the Umayads.

It defeats twice the great army of the Umayyads thanks to the contribution of the riders of Banou Ifren.

It reigns throughout Ifriqiya for five years. Defeated in 693 by Hassan Ibn in N'uman in the last battle against the Umayyads, she takes refuge in the Amphitheater of El Jem. She is finally taken prisoner, then beheaded at Bir El Kahina. The Umayyad army chiefs send his head in trophy to the caliph Abd al-Malik in Syria.

She will be the only woman in history to fight the Umayyad empire. The Umayyads ask the Zenetes to provide twelve thousand fighters for the conquest of Andalusia as a condition for the cessation of the war.

Divergences on religion

According to the Berber historian Ibn Khaldoun, on the eve of the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, several Berber tribes practiced Judaism.

The question of the religion of Yemma al Kahina (our mother Kahina) 19 has been treated by several historians of the Middle Ages or contemporaries. Several hypotheses have been put forward, according to which she would have been monotheistic, animist or other.

According to historian Gabriel Camps, a specialist in the Maghreb, the zenetian tribes were not Jewish but very Christian. However, for Paul Sebag "it is to go against the texts, hardly recusables" that give the Kahena for Jewish, and member of a Judaised Berber tribe.

The traces of Kahena

In Tunisia, the only place that testifies to the existence of Kahena is the amphitheater of El Djem.

The ancient city of Baghaï, where is supposed to be the castle of Kahena:

A single statue was built in the Maghreb in memory of the Kahena: Raised by the association Aurès El-Kahina in downtown Baghaï, it was inaugurated by the Algerian president in February 2003. Some Kabyle protested because no language registration Amazigh is not on the pedestal of the statue, its name is written in Arabic.



The Kahina a resistant queen

The Arabs made their appearance in North Africa around the year 648 the conquest of this vast territory already under the Byzantine domination lasted more than half a century, it is under the leader of the Umayyad dynasty, Mouawiya 1st that the battles one after the other. Kouceila, AKSEL in Amazigh language a prince of Aurès organizes in the year 683 the first Berber resistance against the Arab invasion led by Okba Ibn Nafaa, the Muslim army eventually killed Aksel in the year 688.

According to El Waqidi, an Arab author, it was Kouceila's death that prompted Queen Kahina to wage war on the Arabs, but in reality she participated in several battles alongside Kouceila, notably the famous battle of TEHUDA in which he was killed. Oqba Ibn Nafaa in the year 683.

But many historians ask questions about this heroic and mysterious woman of the 7th and 8th century nicknamed the Kahina which means in Arabic the priestess or the seer according to the historians with the example of Ibn Khaldoun its real name would be DIHYA or DAMIA daughter of Matiya ben Tifan of the Djerawa tribe who is largely Judaised in the 7 th century, it is for this reason is often said by historians that the religion of Dyhia was Judaism. Others say that the religion of Kahina was Christian, in any case whether it is Jewish or Christian or even pagan, there is little choice for either in the absence of precise documents.

In Bérbérie women have always played a leading role at least until the Almohad period should be mentioned the wife of Youcef ibn Tachfin and the sister of Ibn Toumert but the greatness of the Kahina nobody can not equal because it fed on freedom and patriotism it unifies the Berber forces and was crushed the Arab army on the banks of the (Meskiana Ain Beida and Tebessa) the clash took place on the wadi NINI in memory of defeat the Arabs nicknamed the wadi of '' the river of misfortunes '' and repelled it in tripolitania.
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In 698 the general Arab Hassan ben Nouaman returns with reinforcements and seized Carthage it is the adopted Arab prisoner Khalid ibn el Yazid who will betray it later by warning Hassan of his positions in a message sent concealed in bread.

Before the defeat of the Kahina, the last battle was held in the region of Tarfa 50 km from TOBNA at the feet of Aurès an old town located west of Barika around Batna, this capital was the largest city of the old road from Kairouan to Sijilmassa. the Kahina was killed in the year 701 in front of a well that bears his name: Bir el Kahina, well of the Kahina, Hassan Ben Nouaman finally defeat the Imazighen, in this last battle and capture Dihya, he beheaded, then his head was sent as a war trophy to the Arab caliph Abd al-Malik in Syria.

Today in the Aurès region, the Chaouis call her Yemma El Kahina (Kahina mom) and several songs are dedicated to him, The most famous group bore his name in Aurès. In contemporary Algerian literature, Kahina is evoked in the works of Kateb Yacine as well as many other writers.

Queen Dihya is an integral part of the cultural, historical and even mythical Amazigh heritage. She is a symbol of freedom and resistance to the Arab-Muslim conquest
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@Bahamas2020 , thank you for such a comprehensive look at your country! I will take my time to read it all. I love the picture of the marketplace. It gives me a look into what daily life is like, the things you can buy .
Also, you showed us a picture of you in underwater clothes by the sea. Do you go fishing? Do you enjoy snorkeling and looking at the fish? What do you see? Thanks.
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@Bahamas2020 I found an article on Wikipedia that says that the Berber languages have had a written tradition for about 2,500 years. It is fascinating!
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Dear Judith;

welcome iam very happy to read you thanks alot for your Agree ,yes ilike catch fish ilove it enjoy now below what ishare in Attache dorade



Best Wish ,

Lahcene
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Dear Danijela:

Iam so happyt for your thread about berber language exist in magreb Arabe Tunis, Maroc ,Mauritani,Lybia, Algeria

Good Luck

Lahcene
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Dear Danijela:

welcome iAppreciate your thread about bereber language yes it spoken in Magreb Arabe

Tunis
Maroc
Mauritani
Lybia
Algeria

Good Luck
Lahcene
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Hi All,
iam so happy to participe cultural even now iwould to share something nice to read about artiste below

Aissa El Djermouni best songer in Aures Aissa El Djermouni remains the undisputed and undeniable singer of the Chaouie song. All illiterate he was, the master of the song chaouie, found, it is said, only the words that composed his songs

Chancellor of the chaouie song, Aissa El-Djermouni El-Harkati made vibrate the Olympia (Paris) in 1936. The tenor of the Aures was thus the first Arab and African singer to tread the boards of one of the scenes the most coveted by artists around the world. The man with the 'bendir' and torchbearer of the chaouie song was born in 1885 into a poor family of the Ouled Amar tribe between Nemenchas and Heraktas. As a child, little Aissa is placed in a small Koranic school in the mechta. Aged 6, Aissa leaves the latter to go, with her parents, to settle in her tribe Ouled Amara Bir Smail in the town of M'toussa, after his father - peasant with the voice of tenor -seul and single support dies. The one who will become the chanter of the chaouie song then leaves the Koranic school and consecrates himself, with his elder brother, to the maintenance of the family's flock. This brother who was already humming the song chaouie. Inspired, young Aissa pledged to do the same, even trying to surpass his brother. They thus spent their time humming the known litanies of the soil until nightfall. It is from this period that the young El-Djermouni learns to give free rein to his reverie and to confide his pain to chaotic complaints. He showed such astounding dispositions that, as a teenager, he made his mark as a tenor and became known throughout the Nememchas and Haraktas.
In 1901 or 1902, the former shepherd, who lived at that time Ain-Beida, accompanied his cousin Mohamed Ben Zine Tir, a virtuoso flute. The instrumentalist became, since that date, his accompanist forever for the melody. The duo formed, the two artists began to perform in weddings, then on the terraces of cafes. The invitations to other horizons began to rain and the journey began with lively evenings in Annaba, Setif, Guelma, Biskra. From pilgrimages on initiatory journeys, El-Djermouni leaves the country in 1924, transits through Egypt, Morocco and settles in Tunisia where he records his first 78 laps. Left for a few months, he stayed there more than eighteen months. In 1927, he leaves his anonymity by succeeding to win
by its simplicity,
benevolence and his clear and limpid voice. In 1929, "Ouardaphone" recorded him a 78rpm entitled "Ahway, Ahway Khelini Nhoum". Demonstrating great disposition, he is noted for his voice and enters into the graces of great poets of the genre such as Hadj El Bouarrissa, Hadj Djebbar and many others who composed songs, especially those patriotic and revolutionary including "Ya Hadda Khouiti ma t'gouliche ikhaf '' he recorded in Tunisia in 78 rounds at the publishing house Ben Baroud in 1930, and which is the apology of a certain Ben Zelmat, a
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notorious rebel who rejected all the laws of the colonizer and entrenched in the mountains of the Aurès to make justice. Followed after "El Fouchi Nou Mesmar" then "Akred Anouguir" or "Wach talaou fel aguba", all songs dealing in the same context and through which the artist denounced the slavery of his people, under the colonial yoke.
In 1930, it is the consecration. In France, Aissa El Djermouni El-Harkati records more than 35 songs in 78 rounds at Haroun José Edition. He already has more than 120 songs in his repertoire. This will allow the dandy with the mustache brought to the Turkish and the firm and energetic look to enter the Olympia in 1936.
Becoming, thus, the first Arab and African artist to step on the stage of one of the most coveted halls in the world. "Akerr Anouguir", "Salef dhaberkane", "Hill li ma aandouche wail", "Ain El Kerma", "Ma tgoulou dhelou" and many other titles, appeal to a large audience At the end of the evening, the fanatical Jarmouni myth was born to the fans, after which the duo began to record several songs by Warda-Phone on 78 and 45-rpm recordings.
From her private life, we know that Aissa El Djermouni El-Harkati first married her cousin Fatima (1900-1926) in Ain-Beida. She gave him two daughters, Rebaia born in 1914 and Aicha Baya born in 1916, before dying very young at the age of 26. After that, he married Louisa Ferrari, the daughter of a European, a mechanic by trade, converted to Islam and baptized Sherif. Louisa was the youngest of her two brothers Lalouani and Messaoud. From this second union were born three other girls, Fatima, Bellara and Dalila. It is recognized that Aissa El Djermouni remains the indisputable and undisputed champion of the chaouie song. All illiterate he was, the master of the song chaouie, found, it is said, only the words that composed his songs and the musical tunes that resumed immediately with the help of his "gasba" (flute) Mohamed Ben Zine. At the age of 61, the artist contracted typhus. Hospitalized in Algiers, he died on December 16, 1946, in a hospital in Constantine.
He is buried in Sidi Rghiss in the wilaya of Oum El Bouaghi. Ten days before his death, it is said, Aissa El Djermouni had led a wedding that was his last appearance in public. On the day of the death of the song of the song chaouie, Mohamed Ben Zine, the one who was his flutist, his companion and his accomplice broke his flute and swore to no longer play.
A year later, he went to Mecca to ratify his promise before joining his friend a few years later. Today, as a sign of recognition, the Algerian public authorities devote an annual festival Artiste

https://youtu.be/TWCGF-t8IiY


@Bahamas2020 , thank you for showing us the fish you caught and cooked! It looks delicious. Did you cook it? Was that a photo of you underwater catching the fish?
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Hi,
yes its my self catching and cooking

Lahcene
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Hi All,

iam so happy here some member are interest by my share now iwill share you again about cultural even below

There are several versions on the origin of Ouled Naïl:

It is a highly Arabized Berber tribal society1, according to Barkahmoum Ferhat
According to the nineteenth-century geographer Elisha Reclus, the Ouled Nail are an Arab tribe who came in the middle of the eleventh century, and are said to be the descendants of the Hilalians, a tribe settled in the region of El Oued, Ghardaia and Biskra, to the center of Algeria south of Algiers (Djelfa, Bou Saada, Montagne Amour, etc.) 2 [ref. to confirm]
According to the historian Saci Abdi, the Ouled Nail are Berbers from the Nile in Egypt.
The collective memory Naili brings us two stories. One assumes that the Ouled Naïl are from Western Sahara, the other stating that Sidi Nail is from Miliana.
Anthropology would like the Ouled Naïs to come from a speciation of a part of the Chaoui people.
According to the book "Legendary Algeria", Sidi Nail is a Berber of Andalusian origin born in Figuig and was governor of Saquiet El Hamra in the Souss during the Merinid dynasty. He later settled in the current territory of Ouled Nail after fleeing the kingdom because of the defeat of the King against the Sultan of Tunis.
Another version assumes that Sidi Nail, strain of Ouled Nail, descends directly from Idris3 [ref. to confirm].

Portrait of Ouled Naïl women

Notes and references
Barkahoum Ferhati, article Ouled Nail ..., in Algeria and France, a dictionary coordinated by Jeannine Verdès-Leroux, Robert Laffont 2009, p. 656 (ISBN 9782221109465)
New universal geography: the earth and the men, Volume 11 By Elisée Reclus (1830-1905), p.552
↑ African Review By Algerian Historical Society, p.329 book online [archive]
See as well
On other Wikimedia projects:

Ouled Naïl, on Wikimedia Commons
Bibliography
Émile Dermenghem, The Land of Abel: The Sahara of Ouled-Naïl, Larbaâ and Love, Gallimard, 1960, 217 p.
Nicole Canet, The Love Journey, Oriental Beauties, Ouled Nail, Courtesans, 1870-1960, Gallery Au bonheur du jour, 2010 (ISBN 9782953235111)
Étienne Dinet, Sliman Ben Ibrahim, Khadra, dancer Ouled Naïl, ethnographic novel, H. Piazza publisher, 1926
Related articles
Ouled Nail Mountains
The finale of the orchestral suite Beni Mora by Gustav Holst is called In the streets of Ouled Naïls.
external links
The country of Ouled-Nail [archive], Émile Dermenghem, 1956
Portal of Algeria
Category: Ethnic group in Algeria [+]
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